文章摘要
2013—2020年开封地区 无偿献血人群HIV感染状况及特征分析
Analysis of HIV infection status andfeatures among voluntary blood donors in Kaifeng area from 2013 to 2020
  
DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1007-8134.2022.02.011
中文关键词: 献血者  人类免疫缺陷病毒  人口学特征  血液安全  流行病学  高危人群  传播途径  传染性疾病
英文关键词: blood donors  human immunodeficiency virus  demographic characteristic  blood safety  epidemiology  high-risk population  route of transmission  infectious disease
基金项目:国家自然科学基金青年项目(81902495);北京市自然科学基金面上项目(7212099)
作者单位
李 鹏 开封市中心血站质管科 
侯振娇 开封市中心血站质管科 
魏秀红 开封市中心血站质管科 
刘玉强 开封市中心血站质管科 
蒋 琪 开封市中心血站质管科 
孔维宾 开封市疾病预防控制中心性病艾滋病防治科 
高?晶 河北北方学院附属第一医院感染管理处 
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中文摘要:
      [摘要] 目的 了解开封地区无偿献血人群HIV感染状况和流行特征,为献血招募、降低输血途径传播HIV及确保临床用血安全提供依据。方法 采用2种不同厂家ELISA试剂和核酸试剂对2013—2020年间539 015例献血者标本进行HIV初筛,结果呈阳性者送开封市疾病预防控制中心确证实验室确证。分析和比较不同特征献血人群HIV感染状况和流行特征。结果 539 015例献血者标本中,HIV初筛阳性120例(2.23/万),经确证HIV阳性53例(0.98/万)。2013—2020年男性献血者HIV阳性率和献血者HIV总阳性率均呈下降趋势。确证后标本HIV阳性率男性(1.34/万)高于女性(0.39/万),首次献血(3.17/万)高于重复献血(0.38/万),全血(1.05/万)高于单采血小板(0.22/万),外地户籍(2.39/万)高于本市户籍(0.91/万),差异均有统计学意义(P均<0.05)。26~35岁(1.52/万)HIV阳性率高于其他年龄段,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。53例HIV阳性献血者中,单纯HIV阳性41例(77.36%),HIV合并其他病原体感染者12例(22.64%)。结论 2013年以来开封地区献血人群HIV阳性率呈下降趋势,HIV感染者主要发生于青年男性、捐献全血、首次献血、低学历、公司职员及外地户籍献血人群。加强献血前征询及建立低危/稳定的献血队伍可降低/避免输血传播HIV风险。
英文摘要:
      [Abstract] Objective To understand the infection status and epidemic characteristic of HIV among voluntary blood donors in Kaifeng area, so as to provide reference for the recruitment of blood donors, the reduction of HIV transmission through blood transfusion and the safety of clinical blood transfusion. Methods A total of 539 015 samples of voluntary blood donors were tested for HIV preliminary screening by ELISA reagents from 2 different manufacturers and nucleic acid reagents, all positive samples were confirmed by HIV confirmatory laboratory of Kaifeng CDC. The infection status and epidemic characteristic of HIV in voluntary blood donors with different features were compared and analyzed. Results Among 539 015 samples of voluntary blood donors, 120 donors (2.23/10 000) were detected positive by HIV preliminary screening, and 53 donors (0.98/10 000) were confirmed as HIV positive. The total positives rates for HIV in male voluntary blood donors and all blood donors decreased from 2013 to 2020. After confirmation, the male donors (1.34/10 000), first-time donors (3.17/10 000), whole blood donors (1.05/10 000) and blood donors of registered residence in other places (2.39/10 000) had a significantly higher HIV positive rate in the samples than female donors (0.39/10 000), repeated donors (0.38/10 000), apheresis platelet donors (0.22/10 000) and blood donors of registered residence in this city (0.91/10 000), with statistically significant differences (P<0.05). The HIV positive rate in donors of 26-35 years old was significantly higher than other age groups, with statistically significant difference (P<0.05). Among 53 HIV-positive blood donors, only HIV infection was detected in 41 cases (77.63%) and HIV co-infection with other pathogens were detected in 12 cases (22.64%). Conclusions The HIV positive rate among voluntary blood donors in Kaifeng area shows a declining trend since 2013, HIV infection is dominantly prevalent in young males, whole blood donors, first-time donors, donors with lower academic qualifications, company workers and blood donors of registered residence in other places. Strengthening the inquiry before blood donation and establishing a low-risk and stable blood donation population can reduce/avoid the transmission risk of HIV through blood transfusion. ???耀??MS Mincho?Ё斯??????????????蘀??宋体?????Ё斯??????????耀?children.
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